Racism, Race-Related Stress, and Racial Identity


Carter, R.T. & Mazzula, S., (2013) Race and racial identity status attitudes: Mock-jury decision making in racial discrimination cases, Journal of Ethnicity and Criminal Justice, 11, 1-22. 


Pieterse, A. Carter, R.T. & Ray, E., (2013) The relationship between perceived racism, perceived stress, and psychological functioning among Black American women, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 41, 36-46.


Carter R. T., & Reynolds A.L., (2011) Race-related stress, racial identity statuses and emotional reactions of Black Americans, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17 (2), 156-162.


Carter R. T., & Forsyth J. M., (2010) Reactions to racial discrimination: Emotional stress and help-seeking behaviors Psychological Trauma: Theory, Policy, Research, and Practice, 2(3), 183-191. 


Forsyth, J., & Carter, R.T., (2012) The Influence of racial identity status attitudes and racism-related coping on mental health among Black Americans, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18(2), 128-140.


Pieterse A. L., Todd, N., Neville, H.A., & Carter, R.T., (2012) Perceived racism and mental health among Black Americans: A Meta-Analytic Review Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 1-9.


Pieterse, A. L., Carter R.T., Evans S. E., & Waters R., (2010) An examination of the relationship between racial/ethnic discrimination, and trauma-related symptoms in a college student population Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(3), 255-263.


Pieterse A. L., & Carter, R.T., (2010) The role of racial identity in perceived racism and psychological stress among Black American adults: Exploring traditional and alternative approaches. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40 (5), 1028–1063.


Carter, R. T., Buckley, T.R., & Hall, S., (2008) Racial harassment in American schools. In H. Coleman and C. Yeh (Eds.). Handbook of School Counseling (pp. 111-126) Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.


Carter, R. T., Helms, J. E., Juby, H. L. (2004).  The relationship between racism and racial identity for White Americans: A profile analysis.  Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. 32, 2-17.

Race-Based Traumatic Stress


Carter, R.T. & Sant-Barket (2015) Assessment of the impact of racial discrimination and racism: How to use the Race-Based Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale in practice, Traumatology, (On-Line 12.1.14), 21(1), 32-39


Carter, R. T. (2007) Racism and psychological and emotional injury: Recognizing and assessing race-based traumatic stress.  The Counseling Psychologist, 35(1), 13-105.  


Carter, R.T. & Scheuermann, T.D., (2012) Legal and policy standards for addressing workplace racism: Employer liability and shared responsibility for race-based traumatic stress.  University of Maryland Law Journal of Race, Religion, Gender and Class, 12 (1), 1-100.


Carter, R.T. Forsyth, J.M., Mazzula, S.L., & Williams, B., (2005). Racial discrimination      and race-based traumatic stress: An exploratory investigation   In R. T. Carter,  (Ed.).    Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Training and practice (Vol. 2) (pp. 447-476). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.


Carter, R. T., (2006) Race-based traumatic stress. Psychiatric Times, 23(14) 37-38.


Carter, R. T. (2007) Clarification and purpose of the race-based traumatic stress model: A Rejoinder. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(1), 101-110. 


Carter R. T., & Forsyth J. M., (2009) A guide to the forensic assessment of race-based traumatic stress reactions.  The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 37, 28-40.


Carter, R.T. & Helms, J.A. (2009) Racism and race-based traumatic stress: Toward newlegal and clinical standards. Law Enforcement Executive Forum, 9(5), 113-129.

Peer Reviewed Journal Articles and Book Chapters

Articles / Book Chapters

& Associates, LLC​

Robert T. Carter